The Role of Multimedia Arts to Virtual Reality

Rationalism
Rationalism refers to any view appealing to intellectual and deductive reason as the source of knowledge or justification. Rather than to being a “tabula rasa” to be imprinted with sense data, the mind is structured by, and responds to mathematical methods of reasoning.

  • Reality has a rational structure in that all aspects of it can be grasped through mathematical and logical principles.
  • Intuition, knowledge and concepts are innate.
  • Reality based on math and logic – refers to Virtual Reality created by businesses, IT engineers and multimedia artists or the so-called internet world which is both mechanical and digital in nature as it is run by infrastructures or machines that only read bytes made of number 1 and 0. Computer literate humanity plunged on the web due to its interactive nature designed and populated by multimedia artists.

Social Cognitive Theory by Albert Bandura
Social Cognitive Theory proposes the following concepts:

  • Observational Learning – behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning.
  • Mediational Processes – occur between stimuli and response. These are Attention (exposure), Retention (remembered), Reproduction (perform behavior) and Motivation (the will to perform behavior).

Tutorials from Youtube and eLearning are examples of Observational Learning wherein all the users will watch the video and apply it on his own. The user can repeat the observed action until he or she perfected the procedure.

Social Cognitive Theory by Muzafer Sherif and Carol Sherif
Social Cognitive Theory states the following:

  • Attitude change is mediated by judgmental processes and effects.
  • Receiver’s reaction to a persuasive message communication will depend centrally on he or she assess the point of view it is advocating.
  • Ego-involvement – if the person finds the issue has significance, centered to one’s sense of self, important and holds position.
  • Assimilation Effect – occurs when the receiver perceives the message as advocating a position closer to his or her own position than it actually does.
  • Contrast Effect – occurs when the receiver perceive the message as advocating a position further away from his or her own position further away his or her own position than it actually does.
    Political campaigns from taglines, prints, photos, video and social network are used to mediate a political person. Such as Erap para sa Mahirap, Change is Coming, Make America Great Again.

Medium Theory by Marshall McCluhan, 1969
Medium Theory proposes that medium itself as a message. The personal and social consequences of any medium – that is, of extension of ourselves results from the new scale that is introduced into our affairs by each any extension of ourselves or by any new technology. Content of any medium is always another medium.
Each media has personality. Pen and ink are used for dark, macabre or even grotesque illustrations. Paintings are often vibrant and dynamic. Vector graphics are mechanical while photo editing is narcissistic. 2D animation is playful and 3D animation is hypereal. Mobile photography and viral videos are content oriented while DSLR and videography are dramatic.

Synthesis, Multimedia Influence and Usage to Teaching
This virtual reality or the Internet appeals to human through multimedia. It caught our attention, embed it our personal system and even moved our world inside it. Let use multimedia and tools to contribute to the body of knowledge rather than feeding human narcissism, vanity and neuroticism. Let us guide the succeeding generation who have love for knowledge arts to use the internet and tools properly such as to restore history preserve culture, encourage multimedia research, save the environment, improve technology, resolve present issues and visualize the future.

References
McLeod, S. (2011). Bandura – Social Learning Theory
The Basics of Philosophy. Rationalism
McCluhan M. (1964) Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, pg. 2.

S.D Noam Cook: “Technological Revolutions & the Gutenberg Myth” in Internet Dreams (1997)

ABSTRACT
This article aims to synthesize the studies of Manovich’s New Media Theory, Cook’s Gutenberg Myth, Robins, Websterand Cantu’s Cybernetics.

INTRODUCTION
Multimedia seems to be common at present time. This involves graphic arts, web design, animation, photography and videography. For a beginner, one may ask what is the tool to be used. But as a technical multimedia artist grows up to become a master to be, the question may be changed to how multimedia evolved and how it influenced the world we lived in.. And this study will demystify the history of Multimedia.

RELATED LITERATURE
Manovichin his writing on New Media written in2001, he described the transition of tools such as Daguerreotypeto camera and mechanical to digital computer. He emphasized that new media are mathematically grounded which is a major milestone compared to the old media. Currently this very true since both DSLRs and graphic arts are digital and that the former also uses computer to post-process and print photographs.

As to Cook’s Technological Revolution’s and the Gutenberg Myth, one of the greatest innovation was described. This is the printing press with movable type. The problem at that time is that majority of the population is illiterate due to lack of reading materials especially books. Common people rely on monks to read the Bible for them. Production of books is also a tedious and time consuming process because they were handwritten or made of woodcuts. The printing press has a widespread impact. By 1700, mass illiteracy declined upto 70%. Various media followed the printing press. This was followed by printing press with Linotype that allows offset printing, typewriter, Xerox photocopy, personal computer, printer and graphic design software. Printing distribution also evolved from printed to soft copy through the internet, email and cloud services that allows file sharing.

FIGURE 1. Evolution of Word Processing Media

FullSizeRender

As technology progress, communication and information is improved. However, these are a being monopolized by the dominant class in the society. This can be explained first by the the Theory of Cybernetics. According to Cantu, cybernetics is the Big Bang of information and that it claims that data are interconnected. This is the framework used by Information Technology’s digital trend. Technology today is used from publication to sharing of information and automation of business processes. But before discussing what is cybernetics, learning the different belief systems is a prerequisite.

The three major belief systems are Religion, Science and Government. They tend to monopolize information and public sphere through media. Each belief system may either contradict or support one another. For example, the Vatican’s claim is that the Earth is the center of the universe and that there is only human in the whole galaxy. When Giordano Bruno, contest this dogma by supporting heliocentricity (sun is the center of the universe) and that there are other lives in another galaxy, he was burned at the stake which legal since he moved against the belief system of the church.

FIGURE 2. Belief Systems

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Another example is the Nazis. Adolf Hitler’s philosophy about visual arts is that it must portray reality thus confining especially painting to Naturalism and Realism movement. When the German Expressionist movement protested against this, the Nazis held an exhibition and humiliated the expressionist painting. Some were confiscated while other expressionists working as a professor are expelled like Paul Klee.

According to Robins and Webster, these belief systems use information and communication as a means to control public sphere. And this can be maintained through cohesiveness and integrity of complex structures and policies and control of deviants. This information creates sensation and become center of democratic process of political debate in the public sphere. Public sphere is characterized as:

  • The forum open equally to all citizens, in which matters of general and political interests are debated and ideas are exchanged;
  • Manipulated by corporations and government;
  • Unmanageable and;
  • This can become rational through strengthening communication and information – social engineering which is often influenced by Propaganda.

From these belief systems, deviants from public sphere may intellectually revolt thus creating chaos to the society. And from this chaos, the process will restructure, standardize and become part of the belief system.

FIGURE 3. Deviation & Chaos Theory

FullSizeRender (2)
One example is the Apple Macintosh computer. It was released 1984 equipped with the capability to run graphic design software. This indicates the revolution against the Priesthood of IBM which is designed for large computing and corporations. Mac could have been a deviant at those times but has become part of today’s system especially for multimedia.From this trend, we can see howtechnology evolved from supercomputing mainframes to lightweight artistic Mac computers which are now widely used by the public sphere. What even made Mac a remarkable feat of engineering is that of all the hardwaretechnology Titans, it’s the only who partnered with Adobe Inc. for developing graphic design applications thus has led to belief system that Mac computer is for multimedia artist. With the dawn of graphic arts and growing interest of visual artists, educational systems in all forms adjusted to these technologies. Studying graphics arts and animation from crashed coursed matured into school curriculums to a bachelor degree and masters study.

FIGURE 4. Deviation of Minicomputers from IBM Mainframes

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CONCLUSION

From the three studies, we can observe these similarities:

  • Fusion of technology and visual arts – the capability of mechanical or digital computers to process visual data.
  • Deviation from traditional methodsif in the event that the current systemis unable to sustain the interest of the public sphere. This brings chaos and restructure into a new belief system until such time a new set of deviants again the whole cycle will repeat.
  • Innovation leads to euphoria of public sphere.

REFERENCES
1. S. Cook,“Technological Revolutions & the Gutenberg Myth”, 1944
2. K.Robins & Frank Webster “From public sphere to cybernetic state” in Times of Technoculture
3. J.Cantu,”Universo Kubernetes”.
4. R.Hassan & J. Thomas,” The New Media Theory Reader” 2006
5. Printing – 1947 – Printing Press Work and Use; https://youtu.be/Mx8_kt-bLMk
6. Johannes Gutenberg and the Printing Press https://youtu.be/0ojyCDRc8uc

Manufacturing Culture

ABSTRACT
This research aims to discuss how culture is being manufactured. To support this research, provided are conceptual framework and synthesis of Theodore Adorno & Max Horkheimer andArjun Appadurai journals. Infographics for 1944 and 2017 are also illustrated to support the concept as well as review if they are still applicable to present time.

INTRODUCTION
Culture seems to evolve in an organic way. Layman may say, it changes through time depending on the trend. This common knowledge can be altered if we employed the idea of “Manufacturing Culture.” To manufacture a culture, we can use three frameworks. These are the following:
1. Universo Kubernetes by Javier Livas Cantu;
2. The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception by Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer (1944) and;
3. Disjuncture and Difference in Global Culture Economy by Arjun Appadurai.

UNIVERSO KUBERNETES BY JAVIER LIVAS CANTU
According to Cantu, cybernetics is the Big Bang of Information and that data are interconnected. This is the framework used by Information Technology’s digital trend. Technology today is used for publication to sharing of information. But before discussing what is cybernetics, learning the different belief systemsis a pre-requsite.

The three major belief systems are Religion, Science and Government. They tend to monopolize information and public sphere through media. Each belief system may either contradict or support one another. For example, the Vatican’s claim is that the Earth is the center of the universe and that there is only human in the whole galaxy. When Giordano Bruno, contest this dogma by supporting heliocentricity (sun is the center of the universe) and that there are other lives in another galaxy, he was burned at the stake which legal since he moved against the belief system of the church.

Another example is the Nazis. Adolf Hitler’s philosophy about visual arts is that it must portray reality thus confining especially painting to Naturalism and Realism movement. When the German Expressionist movement protested against this, the Nazis held an exhibition and humiliated the expressionist painting. Some were confiscated while other expressionists working as a professor are expelled like Paul Klee.

From these belief systems, deviants from public sphere may intellectually revolt thus creating chaos to the society. And from this chaos, the process will restructure, standardize and become part of the belief system. One example is the Apple Macintosh computer. It was released 1984 equipped with the capability to run graphic design software. This indicates the revolution against the Priesthood of IBM which is designed for large computing and corporations. Mac could have been a deviant at those times but has become part of today’s system especially for multimedia.

 

THE CULTURE INDUSTRY: ENLIGHTENMENTAS MASS DECEPTIONBY THEODOREADORNOAND MAX HORKHEIMER (1944).
From this journal, another belief system can be added. This is what is called as Business – not so dogmatic but definitely exploits media to sell their goods and services not just to the public but in all types of costumers like government and fellow corporations. Which not only impacts the economy but tend to modify th eculture as well.

FIGURE 1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

m culture 1
According to Adorno and Horkheimer, the culture can be modified through:
• Industrialization through advancement of technology wherein the inhabitants are both producers and customers and;
• Mass media such as radio, televisions (commercials and movies) and film shows. There is also mass reproduction of arts thus Fine Arts are being overshadowed.
These methods tend to deceive the public focusing more on their job to support their lifestyle and engage in entertainment.

DISJUNCTURE AND DIFFERENCE IN GLOBAL ECONOMY CULTURE BY ARJUN APPADURAI
This journal by Appadurai discusses the changes in India’s cultural landscape that results from emerging business, economy and globalization.
Appadurai formally categorized the factors that modifies a culture.
1. Ethnoscapes – this refers to tourists, immigrants, refugees, exiles, guest workers and other moving group.
2. Technoscapes – this refers mechanical and informational technology.
3. Finanscapes– this refers to the global disposition of global capital.
4. Mediascapes – this refers to image-centered, narrative-based accounts of strips of reality.
5. Ideoscapes – this refers to ideologies of the state.
These tends to deterritorialize India’s culture. Some examples are that their native IT engineers migrate to abroad for greener pasture, Middle Eastern business acquiring lands and establishing hotels designed by their architecture and prostitutes entertaining tourists wearing their national customers.

SYNTHESIS
By applying the Conceptual Framework, the 1944 timeframe was used when World War II is ongoing and the time that Adorno and Horkheimer’s journal was written. The three belief systems are Science, Government and Business while the mass media are radio, television, film and prints spherically newspaper.

The U.S. government needs science and technology systems for manage their weapons and other projects that will make them win the war against Nazi. It also needs business to provide steel and assemble their weaponries like Steeltown in Ohio and General Motors. Working on these factories are promoted to the public especially through televisions. In return, the workers will have a good income to support their lifestyle.

FIGURE 2. INFOGRAPHICS 1944

m culture 2

CONCLUSION
Up to present time, this concept of manufacturing culture is still applicable. There’s more robust technology infrastructure and flexibly designed corporate loans to support businesses of all sizes. Manpower are either being imported, offshored or outsourced from well-developed countries like U.S. and Europe to third world countries like Philippines and India because of high quality of output but with low labor cost. Businesses are using the internet to advertise their products and services through social media at any platform like smartphones and computers. The public then enjoys the use of these online services as well as adapt to the latest trend.The public is more aware of the latest fashion, gadgets and promotions both locale and abroad. Purchasing and delivery where even simplified through credit cards and payment gateways and shipping services.

The difference from now and then is that the data coming from the public are gathered through web robots or system integration. These are being used by the business and government for their business intelligence that study customer behavior as well as directing or designing the culture and future.

FIGURE 3 INFOGRAPHICS 2017

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REFERENCES
1. J.Cantu,”Universo Kubernetes”
2. T.Adorno, M.Horkheimer, The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception
3. A. Appadurai,”Disjuncture and Difference in Global Culture Economy”

 

Programming: An Essential Skill for a Multimedia Designer

mapua-logo

Programming: An Essential Skill for a Multimedia Designer

by Ox

Mapua Institute of Technology, Intramuros, Manila, Philippines

January 18, 2017

Abstract
This paper outlines the importance of programming skills to a multimedia designer depending on the field of expertise. The topic was further enhanced by adding Field of Expertise and sample art works were provided to support the conclusion.

Introduction
The use of multiple media such as voice, video, images and data are innovated by the evolution of information technology by using applications that have the capability to create graphics, dynamic websites, animation and edit photos and videos. Since multimedia is software-based, programming skills is important to a multimedia designer. However, its importance comes on a certain degree depending on the field of expertise and output that is required from a multimedia designer.

Conceptual Framework
Figure 1.  Straight Concept on the Importance of Programming Skills to a Multimedia Designer

cf1

From the assumption we can propose a straight concept that a multimedia designer is required to acquire “vague” software development skills thus one must study programming languages such as HTML, PHP, ASP and Java to name few.

Figure 2. Comics for Straight Concept on the Importance of Programming Skills to a Multimedia Designer.

cf3

Figure 3.  The Concept of Adding “Field of Expertise” Variable

But if variable – Field of Expertise is added, we can further assess the value of programming skills to a multimedia designer. The Field of Expertise or specialization will determine the Tools and Output that is required from the multimedia designer.

cf2

Figure 4. Comics for the Concept of Adding “Field of Expertise” Variable

cf4

Table 1. Field of Expertise, Tools and Output from a Multimedia Designer

field-of-expertise-table

Methodology
To support the matrix, sample artworks are provided below.

expertiseConclusion  
Based on the output, only creating a Webpage required HTML Web Programming Language thus we can conclude that if a multimedia designer aspires to become a web designer, acquiring programming skills is highly essential.

References

  1. A. Dan, D. Serpanos, S. Feldman, “Evolution and Challenges in Multimedia,” IBM 1. RES. DEVELOP. VOL. 42 NO. 2 MARCH 1998
  2. R. Rădescu1, V. Pupezescu, “Design And Implementation Of Dynamic E-Learning Content Using Multimedia Tools And Web Technologies, ” Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Information Technology, Applied Electronics and Information Engineering Department. NOVEMBER 2016
  3. T.Y. Mou, “Motion Capture In Supporting Creative Animation Design,” Department of Visual Communication Design, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan. NOVEMBER 2016
  4. Adobe Inc. Success Story, “Meteoric Rise,” NOVEMBER 2010
  5. W3School, HTML5 Images
  6. R. Rodriguez Jr. “Creative Developing in Lightroom 5: Advanced Concepts,” B & H, AUGUST 2014
  7. M. Melford, “Tips and Techniques for Creating Memorable Landscape Photographs with Michael Melford,” B & H, JULY 2015
  8. J. Caponigro “Tips and Strategies for Mastering Color in Photoshop with John Paul Caponigro,” B & H. JULY 2015

 

 

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